Archive for February, 2012

เทคนิคเช็คสัญญาณโทรศัพท์ iPhone แรงแค่ไหนได้ด้วย Field Test mode

วันนี้ขอแนะนำเทคนิคที่เอาไว้เช็คความแรงของสัญญาณโทรศัพท์ ว่าแถวที่ เราใช้ไอโฟนอยู่ สัญญาณมันชัดขนาดไหน โดยการกดเข้า Field Test mode ในไอโฟนกัน เมื่อเข้าโหมดนี้ แถบสัญญาณ (signal bar) ด้านบนจะเปลี่ยน เป็นตัวเลขแทน ดูกันชัดๆ  ด้วยตัวเลขกันไปเลยว่า สัญญาณค่ายไหน จะชัดเจนแรงทะลุทะลวงกว่ากัน โดยยิ่งตัวเลขเข้าใกล้ ค่า ศูนย์มากเท่าไหร่   แปลว่ายิ่งชัดเจน และเทคนิคนี้ ไม่จำเป็นต้องเจลเบรคเครื่องด้วย

วิธีการเข้า Filed Test Mode ใน iPhone

1. กด Phone app โทรออกไปที่ *3001#12345#* แล้วกดโทรออก

IMG_3273

2. ไอโฟนจะเข้า Field Test mode จะเห็นว่า มุมบนด้านขวา จาก แถบสัญญาณ จะเปลี่ยนตัวเลขแทนแล้ว โดยเราสามารถสลับ ระหว่าง การแสดงตัวเลข หรือแถบสัญญาณ ด้วยการแตะสลับไปมา ส่วนวิธีการ ออกจาก Field Test mode ก็แค่กด Home ออกมาเท่านั้น

IMG_3272

3. สำหรับใครที่ต้องการจะให้มันแสดงเป็นตัวเลขแบบถาวรเลยก็ได้ (สามารถยกเลิกได้ภายหลัง) โดยเมื่ออยู่ใน Filed Test Mode แล้ว ให้กดปุ่ม Power ค้างไว้ จนถึง “Slide to power off” อย่าเพิ่งทำอะไร ให้ค้างหน้าจอนี้ไว้ แล้วให้กดปุ่ม Home ค้างไว้จนกว่าจะกลับมา หน้า Home Screen คราวนี้ แถบสัญญาณจะเป็นตัวเลขตลอดแล้ว โดยจะเปลี่ยนเป็นแถบสัญญาณก็แค่แตะสลับ โดยแม้จะรีบูตเครื่อง ใหม่ก็ยังใช้โหมดนี้ได้ตลอด

วิธีการยกเลิก Filed Test โหมด

1. กด โทรออกไปที่ *3001#12345#*
2. กดปุ่ม Home ออกจากโหมดนี้

เป็นอันจบเทคนิคเล็ก ๆ น้อย หวังว่าคงมีประโยชน์ไม่มากก็น้อย ใครจะเอาไว้ใช้ทดสอบ ว่า case ที่ซื้อมาทำให้สัญญาณแย่ลง หรือเปล่าก็ได้นะ หรือทดสอบว่าจุดนี้อับสัญญาณมากขนาดไหน

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วิธีดาวน์โหลดเมนู Truemove Check Balance

ต้องการเมนูภาษาอังกฤษ พิมพ์ billen ส่งไปที่ 9000
ต้องการเมนูภาษาไทย พิมพ์ billth ส่งไปที่ 9000
รอสักครู่ และเมื่อได้รับข้อความตอบรับ ให้ปิดเครื่องและเปิดใหม่
เมนู Check Balance พร้อมใช้งาน โดยจะแสดงข้อมูลต่างๆ ประกอบด้วย

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Cydia Source

Cydia

http://cydia.hackulo.us

http://cydia.myrepospace.com/shivup/

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Neural Networks – A perceptron in Matlab

Neural Networks – A perceptron in Matlab

Single layer feed forward perceptron

By iteratively “learning” the weights, it is possible for the perceptron to find a solution to linearly separable data (data that can be separated by a hyperplane). In this example, we will run a simple perceptron to determine the solution to a 2-input OR.

X1 or X2 can be defined as follows:

X1 X2 Out
0 0 0
1 0 1
0 1 1
1 1 1

If you want to verify this yourself, run the following code in Matlab. Your code can further be modified to fit your personal needs. We first initialize our variables of interest, including the input, desired output, bias, learning coefficient and weights.

input = [0 0; 0 1; 1 0; 1 1];
numIn = 4;
desired_out = [0;1;1;1];
bias = -1;
coeff = 0.7;
rand('state',sum(100*clock));
weights = -1*2.*rand(3,1);

The input and desired_out are self explanatory, with the bias initialized to a constant. This value can be set to any non-zero number between -1 and 1. The coeff represents the learning rate, which specifies how large of an adjustment is made to the network weights after each iteration. If the coefficient approaches 1, the weight adjustments are modified more conservatively. Finally, the weights are randomly assigned.

A perceptron is defined by the equation:

Therefore, in our example, we have w1*x1+w2*x2+b = out
We will assume that weights(1,1) is for the bias and weights(2:3,1) are for X1 and X2, respectively.

One more variable we will set is the iterations, specifying how many times to train or go through and modify the weights.

iterations = 10;

Now the feed forward perceptron code.

for i = 1:iterations
     out = zeros(4,1);
     for j = 1:numIn
          y = bias*weights(1,1)+...
               input(j,1)*weights(2,1)+input(j,2)*weights(3,1);
          out(j) = 1/(1+exp(-y));
          delta = desired_out(j)-out(j);
          weights(1,1) = weights(1,1)+coeff*bias*delta;
          weights(2,1) = weights(2,1)+coeff*input(j,1)*delta;
          weights(3,1) = weights(3,1)+coeff*input(j,2)*delta;
     end
end

A little explanation of the code. First, the equation solving for ‘out’ is determined as mentioned above, and then run through a sigmoid function to ensure values are squashed within a [0 1] limit. Weights are then modified iteratively based on the delta rule.

When running the perceptron over 10 iterations, the outputs begin to converge, but are still not precisely as expected:

out =
  0.3756
  0.8596
  0.9244
  0.9952
weights =
  0.6166
  3.2359
  2.7409

As the iterations approach 1000, the output converges towards the desired output.

out =
  0.0043
  0.9984
  0.9987
  1.0000
weights =
  5.4423
  12.1084
  11.8823

As the OR logic condition is linearly separable, a solution will be reached after a finite number of loops. Convergence time can also change based on the initial weights, the learning rate, the transfer function (sigmoid, linear, etc) and the learning rule (in this case the delta rule is used, but other algorithms like the Levenberg-Marquardt also exist). If you are interested try to run the same code for other logical conditions like ‘AND’ or ‘NAND’ to see what you get.

While single layer perceptrons like this can solve simple linearly separable data, they are not suitable for non-separable data, such as the XOR. In order to learn such a data set, you will need to use a multi-layer perceptron.

http://matlabgeeks.com/tips-tutorials/neural-networks-a-perceptron-in-matlab/

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iAtkos Installation Options for my PC

Things to be selected during iAtkos L2

  1. Disable Graphics Enabler
  2. Enable PCI Root-1
  3. Enable SATA/IDE / AHCI SATA
  4. Enable Sound / ALC8xx
  5. Enable Sound /ALC889 Enabler
  6. Enable USB / USB 3.0
  7. Enable USB /USB
  8. Enable VGA / NVEnabler
  9. Enable Hardware Sensors / CPU
  10. Enable Hardware Sensors / Motherboard
  11. Enable Hardware Sensors / nVidia VGA cards
  12. Enable Network / Realtek RTL8111/8168

iAtkos L2 Customise Settings
——————————————

  • Bootloader
    • Chameleon 2.1 (default)
    • Chimera 1.6
  • Bootloader Options
    • Graphics Enabler (default)
    • Built-in Ethernet (default)
    • PCI Root-1
    • 32-bit
    • CPU Throttler
    • Original Apple Boot Logo
  • Patches
    • FakeSMC (default)
    • Disabler (default)
    • RTC
      • RTC (default)
      • RTC 32-bit
    • EvOreboot (default)
    • IOPCIFamily
    • Custom Kernels
      • Atom Kernel 11.1.0
  • Drivers
    • Main Hardware
      • SATA/IDE
        • AHCI SATA
        • Non-AHCI SATA
        • Jmicron IDE
        • SSD Trim support
      • Sound
        • AppleHDA
          • ALC8xx
          • HDA Enablers
            • ALC888
            • ALC887/ALC888b
            • ALC889
            • ALC885/ALC889a
            • ALC892
        • VoodooHDA
          • v2.1
          • v2.2
          • v2.6.1
          • v2.7.2
          • v2.7.3
      • USB
        • USB 3.0
        • USB
      • Hardware Sensors
        • CPU
        • Motherboard
        • nVidia VGA cards
        • ATI VGA cards
      • PS/2
      • Laptop Battery
    • VGA
      • nVidia
        • NVEnabler
        • G92
        • GF100
      • ATI
        • ATY_Init
        • ATI 48xx
    • Network
      • Wired
        • Realtek RTL8111/8168
        • Marvell
          • Yukon 88E8001
          • Yukon 88E8056
        • Intel Gigabit
        • Atheros
      • Wireless
        • Atheros
          • AR9285
          • AR9287

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Making Lion USB Installer

NB! Something is really wrong with CSS here, it disables lists styling at all ;)

There are several reasons why we might need to install an OS from USB disk, no CD/DVD reader or CD/DVD is broken or SATA DVD is not supported, Double Layer DVD burining fails and so on.

Installing OS from USB has several advantages:

  • faster installation
  • easy to add extra files to installation media
  • easy to put into pocket and use on any usb boot supporting computer
  • you dont lose CDor DVD due invalid burn (DL DVD’s are expensive)

Disadvantages:

  • flash card is more expensive than DVD or DL DVD
  • have to learn something new :)

For this tutorial we need:

  • 8GB usb disk or flash card (or 5GB or larger)
  • Windows or OS X running machine
  • OS X installation media (DVD ord DVD image)

If you do not have OS X running machine, you can use olso OSX installation DVD to bulid bootable USB.

  • Partition USB disk – you have two choises
    • OS X – Disk Utility
      If you dont have OS X you can also boot some comp with OS X installation DVD and use Disk Utility from menu Utilities.

      • Open Disk Utilites
      • Select your USB disk from left panel (not partition on it)
      • Select Partition tab from right panel
      • Select 1 Partition from combo box
      • Enter name, for example OSXInstall
      • Shoose format: Mac OS X extended (journaled)
      • Click on Options button and select MBR (master boot record) and OK
      • Press Apply
      • Wait until your USB wil be prepared
    • Windows – Paragon Drive Backup
      • Download USB image from internet
      • Extract archive to somewhere on your hard disk
      • Open Paragon Drive Backup
      • Select your USB disk on drives list
      • Right click on drive on existing partition
      • From conext menu choose restore partition or disk
      • Click switch to file view
      • Navigate and select appropriate folder that contains image backup
      • Follow restore screen and press apply on toolbar
      • Wait until your USB wil be prepared
  • Make new HSF partition bootabe
    • Use OSx86 Tools [on mac Mac OS]
      • Open OSx86 Tools
      • Click on button Install EFI / Run FDISK
      • Select for disk to use your new USB partition
      • For EFI to install choose No EFI (Darwin bootoloader)
      • Press Install EFI
      • Wait untill installation finished
      • Close dialog and OSx86 Tools
      • You have now bootable usb disk
      • Test it !! Do not copy files on media before you are sure that you can boot from new bootable disk. Please not, if you get on booting up from new bootable usb disk an error message that boot file not found, its ok, becouse you have copied OSX installation to the USB yet.
    • Use terminal
      • … adding this part soon
  • Copy installation media to the bootable USB media
    • OS X – Disk Utility
      • Open Disk Utility
      • From right panel select restore
      • Drag your new bootable USB HSF partition to the Destination field
      • Drag your OS X installation image into the Source field
      • Do not check erase destination !!!
      • Click restore, confirm restore
      • Enter password when asked
      • Wait until files are copied to the USB disk
    • OS X – Disk Utility
      • Insert your USB disk in
      • Insert installation DVD into DVD drive
      • Boot up your comp from bootable DVD
      • Follow instructions above
      • For source use partition on DVD

I will add photos also soon! ;)
NB! Something is really wrong with CSS here, it disables lists styling at all ;)

There are several reasons why we might need to install an OS from USB disk, no CD/DVD reader or CD/DVD is broken or SATA DVD is not supported, Double Layer DVD burining fails and so on.

Installing OS from USB has several advantages:

  • faster installation
  • easy to add extra files to installation media
  • easy to put into pocket and use on any usb boot supporting computer
  • you dont lose CDor DVD due invalid burn (DL DVD’s are expensive)

Disadvantages:

  • flash card is more expensive than DVD or DL DVD
  • have to learn something new :)

For this tutorial we need:

  • 8GB usb disk or flash card (or 5GB or larger)
  • Windows or OS X running machine
  • OS X installation media (DVD ord DVD image)

If you do not have OS X running machine, you can use olso OSX installation DVD to bulid bootable USB.

  • Partition USB disk – you have two choises
    • OS X – Disk Utility
      If you dont have OS X you can also boot some comp with OS X installation DVD and use Disk Utility from menu Utilities.

      • Open Disk Utilites
      • Select your USB disk from left panel (not partition on it)
      • Select Partition tab from right panel
      • Select 1 Partition from combo box
      • Enter name, for example OSXInstall
      • Shoose format: Mac OS X extended (journaled)
      • Click on Options button and select MBR (master boot record) and OK
      • Press Apply
      • Wait until your USB wil be prepared
    • Windows – Paragon Drive Backup
      • Download USB image from internet
      • Extract archive to somewhere on your hard disk
      • Open Paragon Drive Backup
      • Select your USB disk on drives list
      • Right click on drive on existing partition
      • From conext menu choose restore partition or disk
      • Click switch to file view
      • Navigate and select appropriate folder that contains image backup
      • Follow restore screen and press apply on toolbar
      • Wait until your USB wil be prepared
  • Make new HSF partition bootabe
    • Use OSx86 Tools [on mac Mac OS]
      • Open OSx86 Tools
      • Click on button Install EFI / Run FDISK
      • Select for disk to use your new USB partition
      • For EFI to install choose No EFI (Darwin bootoloader)
      • Press Install EFI
      • Wait untill installation finished
      • Close dialog and OSx86 Tools
      • You have now bootable usb disk
      • Test it !! Do not copy files on media before you are sure that you can boot from new bootable disk. Please not, if you get on booting up from new bootable usb disk an error message that boot file not found, its ok, becouse you have copied OSX installation to the USB yet.
    • Use terminal
      • … adding this part soon
  • Copy installation media to the bootable USB media
    • OS X – Disk Utility
      • Open Disk Utility
      • From right panel select restore
      • Drag your new bootable USB HSF partition to the Destination field
      • Drag your OS X installation image into the Source field
      • Do not check erase destination !!!
      • Click restore, confirm restore
      • Enter password when asked
      • Wait until files are copied to the USB disk
    • OS X – Disk Utility
      • Insert your USB disk in
      • Insert installation DVD into DVD drive
      • Boot up your comp from bootable DVD
      • Follow instructions above
      • For source use partition on DVD

I will add photos also soon! ;)

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Busratio for i3, i5 and i7 Processors

Busratio for i3, i5 and i7 Processors

Someone ask me via email how to install Snow leopard/leopard on i5 processor, he still stuck with kernel panic after boot from dvds. he try many osx86 dvds and retail dvds but problem is still the same.
why he get kernel panic or reboot after boot from dvd? the answer is because he not use custum “bootflag” for his computer.

like my guide install iATKOS v7 on i7 920 prosessor i’m just add “busratio=22″. busratio=22 is for i7 870, its different for more i7, i5 or i3 processor. below is full list of busratio for i7, i5 and i3 processor. use this for installation with osx86 or retail DVD, maybe you will baypass kernel panic for “i” processor and successfull install osx86 on your PC.

How to add bootflag when your install osx86
simple, just boot from osx86 DVDs when chameleon appear press F8 and type:
Snow Leopard : “cpus=1 arch=i386 busratio=22” (32 bit mode) or “cpus=1 arch=x86_64 busratio=x” (64bit mode)
Leopard : “busratio=22”

Note:

* x = correct number of busratio for your processor, find that number below.
** you can add more bootflag like “-v” “-f” and more
*** type bootflag without quote

busratio Busratio for i3, i5 and i7 Processors

after installations finished you still required type bootflag to enter osx operating system, without type bootflag you will get kernel panic. when you on osx desktop, you can edit com.apple.Boot.plist so you no need to type bootflag manualy anymore.

here to edit boot.plist
go to “/Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/ ” folder and copy com.apple.Boot.plist file to your desktop and open with TextEdit. like this:

<?xml version=”1.0″ encoding=”UTF-8″?>

<!DOCTYPE plist PUBLIC “-//Apple//DTD PLIST 1.0//EN” “http://www.apple.com/DTDs/PropertyList-1.0.dtd”>

<plist version=”1.0″>

<dict>

<key>Kernel</key>

<string>mach_kernel</string>

<key>Kernel Flags</key>

<string>arch=x86_64 busratio=20</string>

<Key>Quiet Boot</key>

<string>Yes</string>

</dict>

</plist>

look at Kernel Flag section, there you enter the bootflag.
after you edit boot.plist now just replace com.apple.Boot.plist on /Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/ folder with new com.apple.Boot.plist file and now you ever need type bootflag again.

any questions? leave your comment below

*thanks to someone who send me that picture.

http://3rr0rists.net/macintosh/busratio-for-i3-i5-and-i7-processors.html

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iATKOS L2 Installation Guide

The oscar goes to Apple and OSX86 community..

Thanks to all of our forum operators..

All the GGRN people, hey folks :)

Our team OSX86.Türk, EVOSX86, Project OS X, InsanelyMac, tonymacx86 and other OSX86 development platforms and the developers are the reason for this system to survive..

Attention:

1-
a) This is an OSX86 installer and this is only designed for Non-Apple X86 Intel CPU computers.
b) Includes Apple’s Mac OS X Lion 10.7.2 (Build 11C74), X86 patches and some basic drivers.
c) You do not need any other OS X system on your target computer, you only need iATKOS L2 burned to 4.7G DVD or restored on a USB media to install OS X Lion.

2- 
Hardware Compatibility is the most important subject for this OS.
Requirements for OSX86 system:
- Compatible motherboard
- Intel Core CPU
- Compatible VGA card
- Minimum 1GB RAM
- Minimum 15GB free space on target partition

So, you need to know about the compatibility of your hardware before installing this system. To get your hardware details (Vendor IDs, Device IDs): 
-Fire up a Linux Live CD (ie. Ubuntu Live CD), type “lspci -nn” in terminal and take notes.
-Windowsers, get Everest Ultimate Edition and export the information.

After getting your information, you will need to visit Wiki HCL pages and OSX86 forums on the internet.
Mostly, compatible chipsets and device id’s work but this is not a rule, same models of different brands with same chipsets and id’s may have differences that can result with incompatibility.
Search before asking “Will this hardware work with iATKOS L?”.
Simply, if a hardware that is not compatible for OSX86 10.7.2, then it is also not compatible for iATKOS L2.

3- 
Make sure that the md5 checksum of your iATKOS dmg file matches the one posted on our website. If not, then you have a faulty dmg image file.

4- 
If something goes wrong, please don’t panic. Scroll down for the Troubleshooting guide. If that fails, take a screenshot (or a picture) of what went wrong and post it in the forums. Make sure you have done the 3 Revival steps and troubleshooting steps before posting in the forum!

Information:

- You can make clean, upgrade and refresh installs to your existing OSX86 system using iATKOS L2. Please read the related section below.

- Easy installation on Software RAID volumes, no additional user actions needed. Please read the related section below.

- Using software updater to apply main system updates just like real Macs on most PC hardware is possible, but we can never know what Apple will do in their upcoming updates, so it may not result in %100 success, also some of the drivers should be reinstalled after updates. Please read the related section below.

- This installer may not include all the necessary drivers required by your setup. Additional steps may be needed to be taken by the user to setup and use such components. 

- Main system is fully stock. @Karmic Alice and I are running L2 main system on our MacBooks. After working on real Macs, finally Lion system is now completely OK with this L2 release. Thanks to @Karmic Alice for participating on the experimental work.

- AppleHDA patches, some VoodooHDA kexts and the Chimera bootloader is from tonymacx86.com

- Artwork by @denizckosar

- Spanish translations by @Karmic Alice.

Before Installation:

-Backup your personal data

-Check your BIOS settings >>
Execute Disable bit: Enabled
XD: Enabled
Limit CPUID Max: Disabled
Virtualization: Disabled or Enabled, try it.
Hyper-threading: Disabled or Enabled, try it.
HPET: Enabled
SATA Mode: AHCI

-A target partition (primary partition for MBR) or disk will be needed for installation. If you are not an advanced user, then use a clean harddisk with no personal data/OS as for target and unplug all the other harddisk drives connected to your motherboard just to be safe.

-If the target disk includes personal data and/or any OS, we advice Parted Magic Live CD for partitioning and such operations for preparing a target. You can also do the partitioning and create targets by using OS X Disk Utility.

Starting the Installation:

- Boot using the iATKOS L2 media (DVD or USB)

- If you have a NetBook with an Intel Atom CPU, then press F8 at boot screen, type “mach_atom” without quotes and hit enter.

- Select the language

Clean Installation:

1- Run Disk Utility via Utilities menu and erase the target for clean install

- You can choose MBR (Master Boot Record) or GPT (Guid Partition Table) via partitioning options. If you want to change your existing partition table type, note that all your existing data on disk will be gone! Please do not play with partitioning options if your are not an advanced user.

2- Select the destination for installation

3- Click Customize* and select what you need

4- Click Install

Upgrade from previous versions:

You can upgrade your existing Snow Leopard or Lion installations to Lion 10.7.2 or make a refresh install to your 10.7.2 system (keeping your applications, data, user settings and accounts) by using iATKOS L2.

Some of your drivers/applications just may not be compatible with Lion, know that they may fail after upgrade, this may also cause kernel panics. So search for your existing software/driver compatibility for Lion, before upgrading to Lion.

Your 3rd party applications, personal data, user settings and user accounts will be reserved but all system files/drivers/applications will be gone, so you will need to setup your selections just like a clean install.

1- Select the destination for upgrade installation

2- Click Customize* and select what you need

3- Click Install

* Customize:

This is the most important part of the installation. List of selections..
There is already a basic default profile chosen. You should add only device drivers for your hardware setup at first trials of your OSX86 installing adventure if you are a newbie, then you may try adding other packages to find out the best combination for your PC. Adding a few packages to default profile will probably be enough for most computers. 
Please read the descriptions of the packages carefully.

Basics you should know:

- Do not select more than one item for one operation. ie. graphic cards or bootloaders. Only select one bootloader, one enabler method for your graphic card, one method for your sound card, etc..

- “Graphics Enabler” option of the bootloader should be the first choice for activating the OS X driver for your VGA card.

- You can of course try the drivers or methods to make your hardware components work but, it is better to google it before trying the packages. You can easily find the solution for i.e. nVidia 5xx cards inside the iATKOS L2 by searching on google (select ATY_Init and after install, add your device id.. etc.).

- Most ATI Mobility VGA cards are not compatible with this system and most compatible ATI cards need their custom packages/modifications which is not included in this release. You must search and find the appropriate driver/solution by your own for such ATI hardwares, so do not continuously ask for ATI support on forum.

- You may not be able to have success at first trials, so keep on trying.. If you are complaining about having no success on 3rd install, then install Windows XP.

Software RAID:

Information:

- Software RAID combines two or more physical harddisks or their partitions (RAID slices) into a single logical unit. RAID’s various designs involve two key design goals: increase data reliability and/or increase input/output performance.

- You can create RAID volumes and install Lion on RAID using iATKOS L2.

- RAID levels or types for OS X:
Striped RAID (RAID-0): A RAID-0 set splits data evenly across multiple disks with no parity information for redundancy. RAID0 is normally used to increase performance for both read and write. It can also be used as a way to create a small number of large virtual disks out of a large number of small physical ones. Simply it is a way to use the disks like using the dual or more channel RAMs, so it increases the read and write performance more than a bit. RAID0 sets are advised for the main system volumes to increase the performance of the OS.
Mirrored RAID (RAID-1): A RAID-1 set creates an exact copy of a set of data on two or more disks. This is mostly for data safety and also an increase of performance for read operations is expected. The RAID array can only be as big as the smallest member of the slices. RAID1 sets are used for security and advised for data storage volumes.
Concatenated Disk set: Which is not exactly a RAID level. The slices are merely concatenated together, end to beginning, so they appear to be a single large disk. It provides no data redundancy. This may be thought of as the inverse of partitioning. Whereas partitioning takes one physical drive and creates two or many more logical volumes, concatenation uses two or more slices to create one logical volume. No increase in performance is possible and neither increased data reliability is possible.

- Boot helper partition: OS X Software RAID systems boot using boot helper partitions and so the bootloader will be installed to boot helper partition instead of the RAID slice. If one of the RAID slices of your target RAID volume is disk0s2, then its hidden boot helper partition named as “Boot OS X” is disk0s3. Do the math for the others.

- Create RAID volumes: You can easily create RAID volumes using OS X Disk Utility. Do the partitioning if you need to, click on the target disk and then click on RAID tab, choose RAID type, name it and by pressing “+” create a new RAID set. Add the target partitions or disks to RAID set by dragging them and when you are done, click to “Create” button. The added partitions or disks will be the slices of your RAID set, in a few seconds your RAID volume will be mounted and ready for installation.

- iATKOS L2 RAID operations:
-L2 installs the bootloader of your choice to the boot helper partition of the preceding disk of the RAID set, so the first disk by your bios will be the Mac OS X boot disk. You can install any foreign bootloaders to other harddisks of your RAID set, there will be no harm to your RAID set. On my 3x RAID0 system, second HDD has Grub bootloader and the third one has Windows bootloader installed seperately and all running fine. I am using Grub to boot all.

RAID Install Steps:

1- Create RAID volume as described above

2- Select it as destination for install

3- Click Customize and select what you need

4- Click Install

Main System Updates:

As you know, using software updater to apply main system updates is possible for most PC’s. Your custom kernel and many drivers will be protected after the update but some drivers and patches will be overwritten and some will be non-functional, so computers that need these drivers and patches will need to take some actions after updating. These packages are:

- USB: IOUSBFamily.kext and IOUSBMassStorageClass.kext
- GF100: GeForceGLDriver.bundle
- SSD Trim support: IOAHCIFamilyTrim.kext

The files will also be installed to /Library/Temp folder. So, you will need to re-install them after applying the update. Kext Utility.app is located at /Applications/Utilities/Tools. Drag the kexts on to Kext Utility.

- VoodooHDA: Any of the VoodooHDA versions may cause kernel panic after updating your system. Solution is deleting AppleHDA.kext from /System/Library/Extensions directory after applying the update.
- ATI 48xx: This driver will be non-functional after applying main system update. You need to search for new version of this patch. Follow Netkas’ blog.

Every main system update had some issues with our PC hardwares that had been covered mostly after the release of the update, so updating like real Macs is not a thing that you can always count on because we can never know what Apple will do for the next update. Until now it had no major problems with X86 PC hardwares.

Multiboot:

iATKOS L2 has no integrated procedure for multibooting but preparing a multiboot GPT or MBR system with this release is easy.

Here is a ”How To” for GPT and MBR triple boot including Mac-Win-Linux. iATKOS L2, Debian GNU/Linux DVD and Windows7 DVD installers are used in this example.

- MBR (Master Boot Record) triple boot -

- Nearly all PC’s work on MBR partitioned harddisks, check it with Disk Utility, if so do no touch it. If it is GPT then you need to repartition your harddisk by loosing all the data in it. Click to partitioning options, select MBR and do the partitioning.

- Create 3 or more partitions by using iATKOS Disk Utility or Parted Magic Live CD. Mac OS Extended Journaled (HFS+) format for OS X target, MS-DOS (Fat32) for the others. OS targets must be one of the first 3 partitions creating with Disk Utility.

- Add boot flag to Windows or Linux target and install the operating systems in any order you like.
For windows, make sure the windows target disk is the first preceding disk by your BIOS, unplug the other harddisks if needed. This is a general windows issue.
For linux, do not install linux bootloader to MBR, install it to linux root.

- Boot iATKOS L2 and install OS X to target as usual.

- If Windows fails to load then you may need to repair Windows (win7 or vista) (mostly you will not face this issue): Add boot flag to Windows partition, boot Windows DVD, select repair, add boot flag to OS X partition.

- You can also add boot flag to Linux partition to use Linux bootloader for multiboot manipulation if you want to.

Now you have triple boot on MBR.

Note: Adding boot flag to MBR partitions: Boot Parted Magic Live CD, right click to partition, select flags and click to boot.

- GPT (Guid Partition Table) triple boot -

- Check the partition table type with Disk Utility. If it is not GPT then repartition the drive and change the partition map scheme to GPT by pressing partition options. You will loose all the data on target disk by repartitioning.

- Create 3 or more partitions by using iATKOS Disk Utility. Mac OS Extended Journaled (HFS+) format for OS X target, MS-DOS (Fat32) for the others. Windows and Linux targets should be of the first 3 partitions.

- Boot Windows Media and install it to its FAT32 target.

- Boot iATKOS L2 and install OS X to target as usual. You have dual-boot with OS X and windows right now.

- Boot Linux media and install the operating system (OS) to its FAT32 target.
Do not install the linux bootloader to MBR, install it linux root.
Do not change the boot flags.
Do not modify the partition table, it can be risky for some distros, just erase the target and do the install.
Use grub2.

- Now you can boot to OS X and Linux using OSX86 bootloader which boots by default, but windows fails at this stage because Linux installation broke the hybrid GPT, so we will bring it back on this step.
Boot iATKOS L2 and enter “gptsync /dev/diskX” command on terminal. X is the BSD number of your target disk, run disk utility and right click on your disk, you will see it.

Now you have triple boot on GPT. By default, OS X bootloader will take the control by these steps. It can boot all of them by just selecting. If you want linux or windows to take the control of multibooting then go on reading, it is described below.

All the OS’ are independent by this way, you can re-install each of them one by one when needed. You just need to care about 2 things:
- gptsync will be needed after Linux re-install
- you need to re-install OS X bootloader after Windows re-install. Boot iATKOS L2, install the bootloader using terminal. If you use linux for multibooting then this step is not necessary.

There are more combinations to make multiboot work on especially on GPT. If you know the procedures as well, there is no thing like an unrecoverable multiboot error. i.e. > keep in mind that hybrid GPT may fail when dealing with linux stuff, then windows will not boot. Do not use parted magic live cd for Hybrid GPT, it breaks Hybrid GPT causing an unbootable windows. There comes the gptsync, it creates a fake MBR code on GPT drives that make Windows feel like it works on MBR partitioned hdd.

You can always apply gpysync if hybrid GPT is broken somehow. After bringing back the hybrid GPT partition using gptsync, windows will work again. After gptsync, you can add boot flag to other partitions by using OS X or Linux fdisk if you like to boot from another OS. i.e. >> booting from linux and using grub for multiboot manipulation instead of chameleon.
For OS X fdisk, boot iATKOS L2 and open terminal:

fdisk -e /dev/diskX # X is the BSD number of your target disk
p # p is the fake MBR partition list
f Y # f for adding boot flag to the target partition, Y is the partition number you want to boot from
w # w to write changes
q # q for quit.

In this multiboot example I created 4 volumes, 3 for OS’ and 1 for storage. OS volumes are first 3 ones. As you see on this fdisk print out and disk utility screen below, fdisk lists the 4 partitions of fake MBR of my hybrid GPT. You can not see the “Data 2″ partition (disk0s5) there because it is the 5th one. 1st partition is the hidden efi, for this reason the OS’ are to be installed to first 3 volumes.

Enter ‘help’ for information
fdisk: 1> p
Disk: /dev/disk0 geometry: 30401/255/63 [488395055 sectors]
Offset: 0 Signature: 0xAA55
#: id cyl hd sec – cyl hd sec [ start - size]
————————————————————————
1: EE 1023 254 63 – 1023 254 63 [ 1 - 409639] <Unknown ID>
2: AF 1023 254 63 – 1023 254 63 [ 409640 - 97656256] HFS+
3: 07 1023 254 63 – 1023 254 63 [ 98328576 - 97654784] HPFS/QNX/AUX
*4: 83 1023 254 63 – 1023 254 63 [ 195983360 - 97654784] Linux files*
fdisk: 1> _

————————–
disk utility layout:
250.06GB WDC WD250…
-OS X
-Windows
-disk0s4
-Data 2
————————–

Unmounted disk0s4 volume is ext4 linux partition (hd0,4) in this example. I added the boot flag to Linux partition using OS X fdisk and modified the grub.cfg file to boot all of them via grub2.

### here is the grub.cfg lines of this example for multibooting
menuentry “Lion” {
insmod hfsplus
set root=(hd0,2)
multiboot /boot
}
menuentry “Windows 7″ {
set root=(hd0,3)
chainloader +1
}
menuentry “Debian GNU/Linux……
###

Simple Troubleshooting guide:

At times after installation, your system may not work properly as in – it may restart, not boot at all or hang at a certain point. This is quite normal and there are many ways for it to be fixed. It varies from one case to another case. However this basic troubleshooting guide would help you to fix most of the common problems.

- If you’re facing hangs, freezes or kernel panics (which is present as a shutdown symbol on the screen just after boot) type in “-v” (without quotes) in the boot command of the bootloader. This would give you verbose output which is useful for the solution.

- “Waiting for root device” – It means that OS X doesn’t see your hard disk or boot device. You can face with this during dvd boot or after system install during hdd boot. 
Change your SATA mode from IDE/RAID to ACHI by your BIOS setup and also you need to check other BIOS settings that might be the problem. This usually fixes the problem. If not, then you can try to install using a USB media. If still no light, then you may have an incompatible hardware for this OS.
If you face with this problem after installation during hdd boot, then reinstall iATKOS L2 by selecting the SATA/IDE drivers for your hardware during install.

- White or black screen during HDD boot – This means that OS X doesn’t see your monitor properly or your graphics card isn’t working correctly. Firstly boot with “-x -v” to reach up to GUI, then you can search the internet for the solution for your graphics hardware. Secondly reinstall the OS again, but this time make sure you don’t select any graphic drivers. If you can login to GUI, you know what to do so.

- Keep in mind that sometimes certain kext patches may not work for your system even though they are the same chipset but a slight variation may cause it not to work on your PC. The result may be a kernel panic again, reinstall back but this time don’t select any funny patches/drivers. This would resolve your problem.

*****************************************
Use iATKOS L2 on your own risk.
*****************************************
web: http://iatkos.me/

IRC: irc.ggrn.org #iATKOS #uphuck.DVD

******************************************

Good luck. If you enjoy your Mac OS X Lion System, then buy a real Mac. Remember that this system is only for testing Mac’s amazing system. Using OS X without a license is not right.

uphuck

cheers

http://www.osx86install.com/support/122-iatkos-l2-installation-guide.html

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How to Build a Hackintosh and Install Mac OS X 10.7.2 Using EasyBeast and MultiBeast

How to Build a Hackintosh and Install Mac OS X 10.7.2 Using EasyBeast and MultiBeast

How to Build a Hackintosh and Install Mac OS X 10.7.2 Using EasyBeast and MultiBeastBuilding a hackintosh—that is, installing Mac OS X on non-Apple hardware—used to require extremely restricted hardware choices and quite a bit of know-how. Now your options are vast and the installation process is fairly simple. With that in mind, here is our always up-to-date guide to building a hackintosh that will walk you through purchasing compatible parts, building your machine, and installing OS X all on your own.

Archived Version: Mac OS X 10.7.2 EasyBeast + MultiBeast Method

Note: This is an archived version of our always up-to-date guide to building a hackintosh that was created to preserve the older EasyBeast method of installing OS X. If you want the most recent method of installing OS X on custom-built hardware, please visit the guide rather than read these instructions.

First Things First: What Is a Hackintosh, Exactly?

A hackintosh is simply any non-Apple hardware that has been made—or “hacked”—to run Mac OS X. This could apply to any hardware, whether it’s a manufacturer-made or personally-built computer. For the purposes of this guide, we’re only discussing a tried-and-true method for building a hackintosh that you build.

That means you’ll need to be comfortable with the idea of building your own machine
and providing your own technical support when you run into problems. While this can be a little bit of a scary prospect if you’re new to building a hackintosh, it comes with the advantage of saving you a lot of money while still providing you with an incredibly powerful, fully customizable machine. We’ll also point you to several resources we’ve put together to help you learn everything you need to know about building a computer so you can feel confident on your first time through the entire computer building process. While it’s important to know that building a hackintosh from scratch is not a project for beginners, it is something that anyone can learn to do. We think it’s a wonderful alternative to purchasing an official Apple product and a rewarding challenge. Now that you know what to expect, let’s get to work.

How Does This Guide Work?

It may seem strange to have an always up-to-date guide to building a hackintosh because the process changes based on the hardware choices you make. Although this is true, it doesn’t change that much. We’ll be discussing the process of building a hackintosh on a broad level, as it applies to most hardware. As a result, this guide will not always be able to tell you the exact boxes to tick and choices to make, but it will teach you how to figure that out for yourself. We’ll hold your hand as tightly as possible through as much of the process as we can, but there will be some decisions you’ll have to make on your own. It can be a little scary sometimes, but that’s part of the fun.

In summary, this always up-to-date guide will explain how to pick the right hardware for a great hackintosh and walk you through the standard OS X installation process, but it will also require you to be diligent and informed in regards to the variables in your specific build.

How to Choose the Best Hardware for Your Needs

 

Picking out hardware and building a computer is often the most daunting part of this process. If you’ve never done it before, it can often feel like putting together puzzle where many of the pieces seem interchangeable but truly are not. That said, we have plenty of resources to help you demystify the purchasing and building process so you’re feeling confident.

First, let’s talk about choosing hardware and what makes certain options better than others.

When Apple builds their official Macs, their parts are not that different from the parts we can buy online when we build our own PCs. In fact, they’re often the same. Additionally, third-party manufacturers will create hardware for Apple’s Mac Pro computers to add additional options to the mix. This means that Apple, or the third parties, need to create software drivers for Mac OS X in order for the hardware to work. This means that virtually any hardware with these drivers is going to be hardware you can use in your hackintosh build. Additionally, the talented people on the internet have developed their own open source drivers for non-Mac hardware in order to provide additional options for your hackintosh. While all of these efforts only span a small percentage of the available hardware on the market, it still provides you with a lot of great choices. Many motherboards, graphics cards, and processors are compatible thanks to these combined efforts.

The next question is, how do you know what is and isn’t compatible? Like we’ve already discussed, if Apple has used the part before, that’s generally a good sign that you can use it, too. That said, you always want to double-check when you’re putting your hardware list together. To help you out, we’ve created a hackintosh hardware buyer’s guide so you can figure out what will and will not work. Follow that guide when choosing your hardware and you should be good to go. You can also reference our Hack Pro and Hack Mini builds, or just use the sample build provided at the end of this section.

Once you have your hardware you’re going to need to assemble it into a working computer. We have an entire night school course on computer building, but this specific lesson will walk you through how to build your first computer. Follow it diligently, read your motherboard and case manuals closely, and you should have a functional machine in no time.

A Sample Build

With the resources we’ve discussed, you should be all set to build your hackintosh. Before we move on, however, let’s take a look at a sample build so you can get an idea of what a basic hardware shopping list looks like. This is an actual hackintosh we’ve built, based on hardware suggested by tonymacx86. It only costs a little over $300, so it’s a great option for beginners. Here’s the parts list:

You’ll find lots of builds like this on tonymacx86′s blog, so you can build those exact machines or use them as starting points to create your own build. However you want to go about it, be sure to read our a hackintosh hardware buyer’s guide if you want help with selecting your parts.

By this point you should have purchased your parts, built your computer, and turned it on to make sure everything is functioning. If all systems are go, it’s time to move on to the installation process.

How to Install Mac OS X on Your Hackintosh

Installing Mac OS X on hackintosh hardware involves a bit more than just popping in a DVD, choosing a boot volume, and clicking a button. You’ll have to do all of that, too, but there’s a bit of prep work involved. Let’s get started.

Step 1: Configure the BIOS

Full size

When you turn your machine on, it should display its BIOS welcome screen. This is generally an image with the name of your motherboard and indicators for a few keys you can press to edit your BIOS. Before we can install OS X, we first have to make a few changes to the BIOS (your motherboard’s settings), so you’re going to need to press the key that corresponds to the BIOS Settings when you power on your machine. This is almost always a function key (like F12) or the delete key, but reference your BIOS image to be sure. (Click the image to the left to see an example.) Press and hold down that magic BIOS settings key and wait for the BIOS settings to load.

The BIOS settings for every motherboard is going to be somewhat similar but never exactly the same. For that reason we can’t tell you, command-by-command, where to go to find and make certain adjustments. That said, we can tell you what to look for. Here are the settings you will need to adjust (or at least verify) in your BIOS to make your hardware hackintosh-friendly:

  • Disable Quick Boot. You may have to look around for this, but we’ve often found this in a section titled Advanced BIOS Settings. Just look for a Quick Boot or Fast Boot option and ensure it is set to disabled.
  • Configure SATA as AHCI. By default, your motherboard will configure SATA as IDE and you’ll need to change this to AHCI. In some cases you’ll be asked if you want to do this when you boot up for the first time. If so, choose yes. If not, go into your BIOS and look for this setting as you’ll need to make the change for everything to work smoothly.
  • Change the Boot Device Order. Your BIOS will default to a specific boot order, which means it’ll look for a startup volume (where the operating system lives) in various places until it finds one. The boot order is the order in which it checks each location. In general, you want to set your optical drive to first boot device so you can easily boot to a disc by simply putting it in the drive and turning on your machine. The second item in the order should be the hard drive or SSD where you’re going to install OS X. The order beyond that isn’t terribly important and entirely up to you.
  • Adjust the Hard Disk Boot Priority. Some BIOS settings pages will also have a setting called Hard Disk Boot Priority, which is used to identify which hard drive to try and boot from first if there are multiple drives in the machine. If you install more than one drive in your hackintosh, be sure to set the Hard Disk Boot Priority to the drive where OS X will be installed.

Once you’ve made these changes, you’ll need to save them. In most cases you’ll only need to press the escape key a few times to get back to the main screen, and then F10 to save and exit. Your BIOS settings page will tell you which keys save, exit, and so on, so you should have no trouble figuring out the right keys to press.

Step 2: Install Mac OS X (Snow Leopard)

How to Build a Hackintosh and Install Mac OS X 10.7.2 Using EasyBeast and MultiBeastNow we’re ready to actually install OS X, but this is going to be a fairly in-depth process that requires a number of tools. Before getting started, be sure you have the following:

  • Both a copy of Mac OS X Snow Leopard and Mac OS X Lion. You’ll need a physical copy of Snow Leopard, which you can purchase through Apple, but you’ll need to download Lion from the Mac App Store later on.
  • iBoot burned onto a CD. You’ll need to register for an account to download it from tonymacx86.
  • The Mac OS X 10.6.8 Combo Update, which will be necessary in order to upgrade to Lion (as it provides the Mac App Store).
  • MultiBeast, also available from tonymacx86. There is a version for Snow Leopard and a version for Lion. Get both.
  • The DSDT file for your motherboard of choice. If you followed our hackintosh hardware guide in the previous section, you may already have a pre-edited DSDT file for your motherboard. If not, visit tonymacx86′s DSDT database, choose your motherboard from the list—making sure you choose the version that matches your motherboard’s firmware—and download it to your hard drive. (Note: You can generally discover the firmware version of your motherboard by looking at its BIOS boot image.)

Note: You’ll want to put everything from this list on a thumb drive for later. Everything but iBoot, that is, as iBoot needs to be burned onto a CD.

Once you’ve got everything prepared, take your iBoot CD, put it in your hackintosh, and boot from it. It’ll take a little while to get going the first time, but once you see a boot options screen you can eject the disc and insert your Mac OS X Snow Leopard 10.6 install DVD. After a few moments it will show up as an iBoot option. Select it and wait for the installer to boot.

Before you can begin the installation, go to the Utilities menu and choose Disk Utility. Select the disk you want to use for installation and format it. To format it properly, follow these steps:

  1. Choose the disk in Disk Utility and click the Partition tab.
  2. Set the partitions to one (or however many you want) and their format to Mac OS Extended (Journaled).
  3. Click the options button and set the partition scheme to GUID Partition Table
  4. Click Apply and wait for the disk to finish formatting.

With your destination disk ready to go, you can now run the Snow Leopard installer just like you would on any other Mac. When it completes you might be met with an “Installation Failed” message at the end (or not), but that’s nothing to worry about. When the installation is complete, swap out the DVD for iBoot and restart your machine. Now you’ll see a new option in iBoot: the volume where you just installed Mac OS X. Choose that and boot everything up.

How to Build a Hackintosh and Install Mac OS X 10.7.2 Using EasyBeast and MultiBeastBefore we continue, congratulations! You just successfully built your own Mac. There’s still quite a bit of work to do, but there’s no harm in patting yourself on the back for a job well done. You’ve made it past the threshold.

Chances are you don’t want to have to use your iBoot CD to boot your machine each time, so the next thing we need to do is make your startup volume do that job. We’ll also need to update to OS X 10.6.8 since we’ll be installing Lion. To get started, launch MultiBeast and then the Mac OS X 10.6.8 Combo Update. Leaving both open, run the 10.6.8 update and wait for it to finish. When it’s all done, click through the MultiBeast installation windows until you get to your installation options. If we were only installing Snow Leopard we’d also install our hardware drivers right now, but since we’re going to update to Lion after this we’ll save those steps for later. The only box you need to check right now is UserDSDT Install. You may also want to check System Utilities because that repairs permissions, etc., and that’s never a bad thing to do.

BUT before you let MultiBeast perform its magic, you need to copy the DSDT file you downloaded earlier onto your desktop. If you’ve been following along closely, that DSDT file should be on your thumb drive along with MultiBeast. Once you’ve copied it over, run MultiBeast and restart your computer when it has finished.

Step 3: Update to Mac OS X Lion

How to Build a Hackintosh and Install Mac OS X 10.7.2 Using EasyBeast and MultiBeast

Now that you’ve got a semi-working hackintosh, it’s time to upgrade it to Lion. This process is a little quirky, so you’ll need to follow the instructions closely, but it’s pretty easy. Before you get started, you’re going to need another utility from tonymacx86 called xMove. You’re also going to need to purchase and download Mac OS X Lion from the Mac App Store if you haven’t already. Once you’ve got both of those things, follow these steps:

  1. Launch the Lion installer and run it on your Snow Leopard boot drive. This won’t actually install the operating system, but simply the necessary files needed for that to happen. When it finishes, click the Restart button to reboot.
  2. Upon rebooting, it’ll seem like nothing has changed. To get Lion set up for a proper install, open Disk Utility, choose your Snow Leopard boot volume, and click the Partition tab. Go ahead and create a new partition that’s 8GB in size, naming it Installer. (Technically it can be larger, but that would be wasteful.) It’ll take a moment for Disk Utility to live-partition your drive, so be patient while it does what it needs to do.
  3. Open up xMove and run it on the new partition you named Installer. This will move all the OS X Lion install files to the new partition and configure things as needed. Don’t interrupt it!
  4. When xMove finishes, reboot your machine and choose the Installer partition from the iBoot menu rather than just letting your computer boot up as normal.
  5. Run the OS X Lion installer like you would on any regular Mac. When it’s done, you nearly are, too!

Step 4: Install Your Drivers

Now you’ve installed Mac OS X Snow Leopard and upgraded to Lion, so you’re almost done. Before we can call it a day, however, you’re going to need to install your hardware drivers. To do this you’re going to need to load the Lion version of MultiBeast that you downloaded earlier. Open that up, click through the install windows, and get to the options page (which should be familiar to you at this point). Here’s a look at all your choices and what they do, using our sample build as a guide:

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  1. EasyBeast Install – Just ignored this.
  2. UserDSDT Install – This is the option that applies your custom DSDT, but seeing as we took care of that earlier you don’t need to check it now.
  3. System Utilities – It’s always a good idea to check System Utilities as it repairs permissions, runs maintenance scripts, and other helpful stuff like that.
  4. Drivers & Bootloaders – This is the section where you’ll be making most of your decisions. You’ll have your pick from an array of hardware drivers that will allow everything from audio to Ethernet to function on your hackintosh. All you really need to do is go through this list and select the relevant hardware in your build. If you have Azalia Audio on your motherboard, that generally means selecting ALC8xxHDA and the AppleHDA rollback options. Most graphics cards you use won’t require drivers, and so you can often skip the Graphics subsection, but just turning on GraphicsEnabler, which you’ll do in the next section. Enabling any of the drivers in the Disk subsection will help provide support for SATA and eSATA hard disks, but they won’t be necessary for most users. The miscellaneous sections has a lot of goodies. If your board supports any of them (like USB 3.0, for example), you should check them off for installation. One kext that always seems to make things work better is NullCPUPowerManagement. We recommend installing this as it tends to make a significant difference in performance on some machines. Lastly you have the Bootloaders subsection, which you can skip as the UserDSDT Install process took care of installing the Chimera bootloader earlier.
  5. Customization – If you’re following our guide you’re using a pre-edited/patched DSDT file, so the only thing you’re going to want to do in this subsection is check off 64-bit Apple Boot Screen (unless your hackintosh has 32-bit hardware) to enable your video card in full force. You probably won’t need the other options unless you have a special situation or are troubleshooting an issue.
  6. OSx86 Software – You don’t really need to choose anything in this department, but if you’d like some handy OSx86 tools installed to your Applications folder you can choose them from this section.

How to Build a Hackintosh and Install Mac OS X 10.7.2 Using EasyBeast and MultiBeastIMPORTANT NOTE: If you’re building a Sandy Bridge-based hackintosh with a motherboard using Realtek ethernet, be sure to check out Lnx2Mac’s ethernet driver. It’s released separately from MultiBeast and sometimes the version it provides is not the latest. That is currently the case and the latest version supports newer socket 1155 (meaning Sandy Bridge-compatible) motherboards. If you’re having trouble with your ethernet, download it directly.

Once you’ve made all of your choices, go ahead and run MultiBeast. When it’s finished, this generally means you’re done and can restart to your brand new hackintosh. In some cases you may need to find additional drivers that MultiBeast didn’t provide. This may be a driver for a Wi-Fi adapter you purchased or some third-party PCI card. If the driver wasn’t provided by the manufacturer or downloadable on their web site, use popular hackintosh forums (like InsanelyMac and tonymacx86) for help. Either way, once you’re done with MultiBeast you can install those drivers as well to finish up the job. Congratulations on all your hard work. You now have a functional hackintosh!

Step 5: Update Your Hackintosh to OS X 10.7.2 (and Beyond)

Full size

For the most part, updating is pretty straightforward and you won’t run into issues, but it’s good to check tonymacx86′s blog when updates are released to see what you’ll need to do. In most cases you’ll just download the latest update from Apple directly (rather than running Software Update), remove Sleepenabler.kext (provided you’re using it), and then re-install it and any overwritten drivers using MultiBeast.

So how do you know what drivers were overwritten? In most cases, the only driver you’ll have to reinstall is the AppleHDA Rollback, because that driver needs to be installed directly into your System Library where OS X makes changes. If you made any edits to graphics drivers, the 10.7.2 may overwrite them so you’ll need to make those edits to the new, updated drivers as well. Whenever possible, MultiBeast installs special to a folder called Extra on your hard drive and then injects them into the boot process during startup. This method is used to prevent them from being overwritten by system updates, but if you have any drivers/kexts that aren’t installed to Extra you may have to re-install them each time.

Since you’ve got OS X 10.7 installed and there’s currently a 10.7.2 update, go grab it from Apple (direct download link) and run the update. Re-install anything necessary when you’re done and test everything to make sure it works. Most updates should go very smoothly, but you should always back up your boot volume beforehand (we like Carbon Copy Cloner for this process) in case something goes wrong. You never know what can happen, and restoring from a backup is considerably less time-consuming than going through this entire process again from scratch.

How to Troubleshoot

Things go wrong with hackintoshes all the time. It’s unlikely you’ll create one without running into, at least, a minor dilemma. A lot of troubleshooting involves trial and error, unfortunately, and you’ll just have to tinker around until you get the problem fixed. You will be able to find help on the InsanelyMac and tonymacx86 forums if you get stuck. You can also use tonymacx86′s rBoot rescue CD to help you boot when you’re having trouble doing so. You’ll also want to spend some time disabling potentially problematic options and kexts in your /Extra folder (which you can get to by pressing Command+Shift+G, choosing Go to Folder, typing /Extra, and see if removing anything can help. Sometimes you’ll need to add things, too, to get the proper hardware support without any glitches so just be diligent and you’ll get there.

Finally, once you do get things working you should clone your hard drive so you have a boot-able copy available should things go awry. This way you can restore back to that copy or at least compare the things that changed since it was all working nicely. No matter what you think, you’re going to screw something up at some point. Keep a backup. You won’t regret it.

For more troubleshooting tips, check out our hackintosh troubleshooting guide.


You can follow Adam Dachis, the author of this post, on Twitter, Google+, and Facebook. Twitter’s the best way to contact him, too.

http://lifehacker.com/5857153/how-to-build-a-hackintosh-and-install-mac-os-x-1072-using-easybeast-and-multibeast

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รหัส Blue Screen ( จอฟ้า ) สำหรับคนซ่อมคอมบ่อยๆ

คำว่า Blue Screen คนเล่นคอม จะรู้จักดี และเป็นสิ่งที่ทุกคนกลัว ไม่อยากให้เกิดกับคอมพิวเตอร์ของตัวเอง เพราะถ้าเกิดนั้นเป็นสัญญาณ บอกเหตุว่า คอมพิวเตอร์ของเราเริ่มจะมีปัญหาซะแล้ว

         แต่่ที่น่าเจ็บใจคือมันบอกเป็นเลขรหัสที่เราไม่รู้ว่า มันคืออะไร และจะมีทางแก้ไขอย่างไร ที่จริงแล้วรหัสที่แจ้งของ Blue Screen มีเกินร้อยตัว แต่จะมาแนะนำเฉพาะที่เกิดขึ้นบ่อย ๆ

รหัส Blue Screen ( จอฟ้า ) สำหรับคนซ่อมคอมบ่อยๆ
มาเริ่มต้นกันเลย…

(stop code 0X000000BE)Attempted Write To Readonly Memory
สาเหตุและแนวทางแก้ไข
      อาการนี้เกิดจากการลง driver หรือ โปรแกรม หรือ service ที่ผิดพลาด เช่น ไฟล์บางไฟล์เสีย ไดร์เวอร์คนละรุ่นกัน
ทางแก้ไข ให้ uninstall โปรแกรมตัวที่ลงก่อนที่จะเกิดปัญหานี้ ถ้าเป็นไดร์เวอร์ก็ให้ทำการ roll back ไดร์เวอร์ตัวเก่ามาใช้ หรือ หาไดร์เวอร์ที่ล่าสุดมาลง (กรณีที่มีใหม่กว่า) ถ้าเป็นพวก service ต่างๆที่เราเปิดก่อนเกิดปัญหาก็ให้ทำการปิด หรือ disable ซะ

(stop code 0X000000C2) Bad Pool Caller
สาเหตุและแนวทางแก้ไข
      ตัวนี้จะคล้ายกับตัวข้างบน แต่เน้นที่พวก hardware คือเกิดจากอัฟเกรดเครื่องพวก Hardware ต่าง เช่น ram ,harddisk การ์ดต่างๆ ไม่ compatible กับ XP ทางแก้ไข
ก็ให้เอาอุปกรณ์ที่อัฟเกรดออก ถ้าจำเป็นต้องใช้ก็ให้ลงไดร์เวอร์ หรือ อัฟเดท firmware ของอุปกรณ์นั้นใหม่ และคำเตือนสำหรับการจะอัฟเดท ให้ปิด anti-virus ด้วยนะคะเดียวมันจะยุ่งเพราะพวกโปรแกรม anti-virus มันจะมองว่าเป็นไวรัส

(stop code 0X0000002E) Data Bus Error
สาเหตุและแนวทางแก้ไข
      อาการนี้เกิดจากการส่งข้อมูลที่เรียกว่า BUS ของฮาร์ดแวร์เสียหาย ซึ่งได้แก่ ระบบแรม ,Cache L2 ของซีพียู , เมมโมรี่ของการ์ดจอ, ฮาร์ดดิสก์ทำงานหนักถึงขั้น error (ร้อนเกินไป) และเมนบอร์ดเสีย

(stop code 0X000000D1)Driver IRQL Not Less Or Equal
สาเหตุและแนวทางแก้ไข
      อาการไดร์เวอร์กับ IRQ(Interrupt Request ) ไม่ตรงกัน การแก้ไขก็เหมือนกับ error ข้อที่ 1

(stop code 0X0000009F)Driver Power State Failure
สาเหตุและแนวทางแก้ไข
      อาการนี้เกิดจาก ระบบการจัดการด้านพลังงานกับไดรเวอร์ หรือ service ขัดแย้งกัน เมื่อคุณให้คอมทำงานแบบ”Hibernate” แนวทางแก้ไข ถ้าวินโดว์แจ้ง error ไดร์เวอร์หรือ service ตัวไหนก็ให้ uninstall ตัวนั้น หรือจะใช้วิธี Rollback driver หรือ ปิดระบบจัดการพลังงานของวินโดว์ซะ

(stop code 0X000000CE) Driver Unloaded Without Cancelling Pending Operations
สาเหตุและแนวทางแก้ไข
      อาการไดร์เวอร์ปิดตัวเองทั้งๆ ทีวินโดว์ยังไม่ได้สั่ง การแก้ไขให้ทำเหมือนข้อ 1

(stop code 0X000000F2)Hardware Interrupt Storm
สาเหตุและแนวทางแก้ไข
      อาการที่เกิดจากอุปกรณ์ฮาร์ดแวร์ เช่น USB หรือ SCSI controller จัดตำแหน่งกับ IRQ ผิดพลาด สาเหตุจากไดร์เวอร์หรือ Firmware การแก้ไขเหมือนกับข้อ 1

(stop code 0X0000007B)Inaccessible Boot Device
สาเหตุและแนวทางแก้ไข
      อาการนี้จะมักเจอตอนบูตวินโดว์จะมีข้อความบอกว่าไม่สามารถอ่านข้อมูลของไฟล์ระบบหรื อ Boot partitions ได้ ให้ตรวจฮาร์ดดิสก์ว่าปกติหรือไม่ สายแพหรือสายไฟที่เข้าฮาร์ดดิสก์หลุดหรือไม่ ถ้าปกติดีก็ให้ตรวจไฟล์ Boot.ini อาจจะเสีย หรือไม่ก็มีการทำงานแบบ Multi OS ให้ตรวจดูว่าที่ไฟล์นี้อาจเขียน Config ของ OS ขัดแย้งกัน

       อีกกรณีหนึ่ง ที่เกิด error นี้ คือเกิดขณะ upgrade วินโดว์ สาเหตุจากมีอุปกรณ์บางตัวไม่ Compatible ให้ลองเอาอุปกรณ์ ที่ไม่จำเป็นหรือคิดว่ามีปัญหาออก เมื่อทำการ upgrade วินโดว์เรียบร้อย ค่อยเอาอุปกรณ์ที่มีปัญหาใส่กลับแล้วติดตั้งด้วยไดร์ เวอร์รุ่นล่าสุด

(stop code 0X0000007A) Kernel Data Inpage Error
สาเหตุและแนวทางแก้ไข
      อาการนี้เกิดมีปัญหากับระบบ virtual memory คือวินโดว์ไม่สามารถอ่านหรือเขียนข้อมูลที่ swapfile ได้ สาเหตุอาจเกิดจาก ฮาร์ดดิสก์เกิด bad sector, เครื่องติดไวรัส, ระบบ SCSI ผิดพลาด, RAM เสีย หรือ เมนบอร์ดเสีย

(stop code 0X00000077)Kernel Stack Inpage Error
สาเหตุและแนวทางแก้ไข
      อาการ และสาเหตุเดียวกับข้อ 9

(stop code 0X0000001E)Kmode Exception Not Handled
สาเหตุและแนวทางแก้ไข
      อาการนี้เกิดการทำงานที่ผิดพลาดของไดร์เวอร์ หรือ service กับ หน่วยความจำ และ IRQ ถ้ามีรายชื่อของไฟล์หรือ service แสดงออกมากับ error นี้ให้ทำการ uninstall โปรแกรมหรือทำการ Roll back ไดร์เวอร์ตัวนั้น

      ถ้ามีการแจ้งว่า error ที่ไฟล์ win32k สาเหตุเกิดจาก การ control software ของบริษัทอื่นๆ (Third-party) ที่ไม่ใช้ของวินโดว์ ซึ่งมักจะเกิดกับพวก Networking และ Wireless เป็นส่วนใหญ่
Error นี้อาจจะเกิดสาเหตุอีกอย่าง นั้นคือการ run โปรแกรมต่างๆ แต่หน่วยความจำไม่เพียงพอ

(stop code 0X00000079)Mismatched Hal
สาเหตุและแนวทางแก้ไข
      อาการนี้เกิดการทำงานผิดพลาดของ Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) มาทำความเข้าใจกับเจ้า HAL ก่อน HAL มีหน้าที่เป็นตัวจัดระบบติดต่อระหว่างฮาร์ดแวร์กับซอฟท์แวร์ว่าแอพพลิเคชั่นตัวไหนวิ่งกับอุปกรณ์ตัวไหนให ้ถูกต้อง ยกตัวอย่าง คุณมีซอฟท์แวร์ที่ออกแบบไว้ใช้กับ Dual CPU มาใช้กับเมนบอร์ดที่เป็น Single CPU วินโดว์ก็จะไม่ทำงาน วิธีแก้คือ reinstall วินโดว์ใหม่
      สาเหตุอีกประการการคือไฟล์ที่ชื่อ NToskrnl.exe หรือ Hal.dll หมดอายุหรือถูกแก้ไข ให้เอา Backup ไฟล์ หรือเอา original ไฟล์ที่คิดว่าไม่เสียหรือเวอร์ชั่นล่าสุดก๊อปปี้ทับไฟล์ที่เสีย

(stop code 0X0000003F)No More System PTEs
สาเหตุและแนวทางแก้ไข:
      อาการนี้เกิดจากระบบ Page Table Entries (PTEs) ทำงานโดย Virtual Memory Manager (VMM) ผิดพลาด ทำให้วินโดว์ทำงานโดยไม่มี PTEs ซึ่งเป็นสิ่งจำเป็นสำหรับวินโดว์ อาการนี้มักจะเกิดกับการที่คุณทำงานแบบ multi monitors
ถ้าคุณเกิดปัญหานี้บ่อยครั้ง คุณสามารถปรับแต่ง PTEs ได้ใหม่ ดังนี้
1. ให้เปิด Registry ขึ้นมาแก้ไข โดยไปที่ Start > Run แล้วพิมพ์คำสั่ง Regedit
2. ไปตามคีย์นี้ HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESYSTEMCurrentControlSetControlSe ssion ManagerMemory Management
3. ให้ดูที่หน้าต่างขวามือ ดับคลิกที่ PagedPoolSize ให้ใส่ค่าเป็น 0 ที่ Value data และคลิก OK
4. ดับเบิลคลิกที่ SystemPages ถ้าคุณใช้ระบบจอแบบ Multi Monitor ให้ใส่ค่า 36000 ที่ Value data หรือใส่ค่า 40000 ถ้าเครื่องคุณมี RAM 128 MB และค่า 110000 ในกรณีที่เครื่องมี RAM เกินกว่า 128 MB แล้วคลิก OK รีสตาร์ทเครื่อง

(stop code 0X00000024) NTFS File System
สาเหตุและแนวทางแก้ไข:
      อาการนี้สาเหตุเกิดจากการรายงานผิดพลาดของ Ntfs.sys คือไดร์เวอร์ของ NTFS อ่านและเขียนข้อมูลผิดพลาด สาเหตุนี้รวมถึง การทำงานผิดพลาดของ controller ของ IDE หรือ SCSI เนื่องจากการทำงานของโปรแกรมสแกนไวรัส หรือ พื้นที่ของฮาร์ดดิสก์เสีย คุณๆ สามารถทราบรายละเอียดของerror นี้ได้โดยให้เปิดดูที่ Event Viewer วิธีเปิดก็ให้ไปที่ start > run แล้วพิมพ์คำสั่ง eventvwr.msc เพื่อเปิดดู Log file ของการ error โดยให้ดูการ error ของ SCSI หรือ FASTFAT ในหมวด System หรือ Autochk ในหมวด Application

(stop code 0X00000050)Page Fault In Nonpaged Area
สาเหตุและแนวทางแก้ไข:
      อาการนี้สาเหตุการจากการผิดพลาด ของการเขียนข้อมูลในแรม การแก้ไขก็ให้ทำความสะอาดขาแรม หรือลองสลับแรมดูหรือไ ม่ก็หาโปรแกรมที่ test แรมมาตรวจว่าแรมเสีย หรือไม่

(stop code 0Xc0000221)Status Image Checksum Mismatch
สาเหตุและแนวทางแก้ไข:
      อาการนี้สาเหตุมาจาก swapfile เสียหายรวมถึงไดร์เวอร์ด้วย การแก้ไขก็เหมือนข้อ 15

(stop code 0X000000EA)Thread Stuck In Device Driver
สาเหตุและแนวทางแก้ไข:
      อาการของ error นี้คือการทำงานของเครื่องจะทำงานในแบบวนซ้ำๆ กันไม่สิ้นสุด เช่นจะรีสตาร์ทตลอด หรือแจ้งerror อะไรก็ได้ขึ้นมาไม่หยุด ปัญหานี้ สาเหตุอาจจะเกิดจาก Bug ของโปรแกรมหรือสาเหตุอื่นๆ เป็นร้อย การแก้ไขให้พยายามทำตามนี้

1.ให้ดูที่ Power supply ของคุณว่าจ่ายกำลังไฟเพียงพอกับความต้องการของคอมคุณ หรือไม่ ให้ดูว่าในเครื่องคุณมีอุปกรณ์มากไป ไม่เหมาะกับ Power supply ของคุณ ก็ให้เปลี่ยนตัวใหม่ให้กำลังมากขึ้น
2. ให้คุณดูที่การ์ดจอว่าได้ใช้ไดร์เวอร์ตัวล่าสุด ถ้าแน่ใจว่าใช้ตัวล่าสุดแล้วยังมีอาการ ก็ให้ทำการ Rollback ไดร์เวอร์ตัวก่อน ที่จะเกิดปัญหา
3. ตรวจดูการ์ดจอ และเมนบอร์ดว่าเสียหรือไม่เช่น มีรอยไหม้, ลายวงจรขาด มีชิ้นส่วนบางชิ้นหลุดจากตำแหน่งเดิม เป็นต้น
4. ดูที่ Bios ว่าส่วนของ VGA slot เลือกโหมด 4x,8x ถูกตามสเปคของการ์ดหรือไม่
5. เช็คดูที่ผู้ผลิดเมนบอร์ดว่ามีไดร์เวอร์ตัวใหม่ หรือไม่ ถ้ามีให้โหลดลงใหม่ซะ
6. ถ้าคุณมีการ์ดแลนหรือเมนบอร์ดของคุณมี on board อยู่ให้ disable ฟังก์ชั่น “PXE Resume/Remote Wake Up” โดยไปปิดที่ BIOS

(stop code 0X0000007F) unexpected Kernel Mode Trap
สาเหตุและแนวทางแก้ไข:
      อาการนี้ส่วนใหญ่จะเป็นกับนัก Overclock เป็นอาการ RAM ส่งข้อมูลให้ CPU ไม่สัมพันธ์กันคือ CPU วิ่งเร็วเกินไป หรือร้อนเกินไปสาเหตุเกิดจากการ Overclock วิธีแก้ก็คือลด clock ลงมาให้เป็นปกติ หรือ หาทางระบายความร้อนจาก CPU ให้มากที่สุด

(stop code 0X000000ED)Unmountable Boot Volume
สาเหตุและแนวทางแก้ไข:
      อาการที่วินโดว์หาฮาร์ดดิสก์ไม่เจอ (ไม่ใช่ตัวบูตระบบ) ในกรณีที่คุณมีฮาร์ดดิสก์หลายตัว หนึงในนั้น คุณอาจใช้สายแพ ของฮาร์ดดิสก์ผิด เช่น ฮาร์ดดิสก์เป็นแบบ 33MB/secound ซึ่งต้องใช้สายแพ 40 pin แต่คุณเอาแบบ 80 pin ไปต่อแทน

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